This name appears in the Old Testament in reference as protector of the Israel army, usually translated as Lord of Hosts. In that context the name usually appears as Jehova Sabaoth. It has become one of many titles of Jehovah.

In Gnostic lore, Sabaoth is an archon and one of the sons of Ialdabaoth. In Hypostasis of the Archons, astonished by his father’s fiery power, Sabaoth condemns both him and his mother Pistis Sophia. This book calls him God of the Powers, for he is above the powers of the chaos. He praises the Wisdom and the Life (Zoi) who take him up and give him charge over the seventh heaven, below the veil, between, above and below. The Life (Zoi) is placed on his right and the Angel of wrath on his left.

In the The Origin of The World, when Sabaoth heard the word of Pistis, he received the authority over all the powers of the chaos and burns with hate for his father. Then Authorities of the chaos waged war against him. Pistis Sophia sent archangels to assist him and establish a kingdom for him above the twelve gods of the chaos. Pistis Sophia also gave him her daughter Life (Zoi) as a consort. Sabaoth made a great place and a throne for himself and then created a host of Cherubim angels. Ialdabaoth envied the glory and greatness of Sabaoth, so he established the death over the six heavens. In return, Zoi created seven good androgynous powers against demons created by death. The souls are manifested before Sabaôth and his Christ before entering their forms.

In Pistis Sophia and other Gnostic scriptures, Sabaoth was usually called the great one, the good one, and the little one. The Gnostics generally believed that Sabaoth and his beneficial functions are associated with Jupiter, while Ialdabaoth with Saturn. There were other opinions though, so Origen and also the Ophites thought that Sabaoth rules over Mars. The Orphites believed that Elijah, Joel and Zechariah were Sabaoth’s prophets.

The Acrhontics had the most negative opinion about Sabaoth. Even though they did also believed that Sabaoth was the highest archon and that he ruled over the seventh heaven, they also said that he was the father of the Devil. The Archontics also taught that Sabaoth was not as evil as the Devil but far below the goodness of the Highest God. They identified him with the God of the Jews and the non-Gnostic Christians. The Archontics rejected the sacraments of the church in general and baptism in particular, as being instituted in the name of Sabaoth (Dictionary of Gnosis and Western Esoterism).

Sabaoth is also frequently mentioned in Greek Magical Papyri. In them he appears as a mightier divine power than how he was described in Gnostic scriptures. His name of power are associated with the Supreme Deity (PGM II). He is one of the names of the ruler of the world and associated with the Holy Light, Everlasting God and the Greatest in Heaven (PGM IV, l). He is the Lord of the World who veils sunset from dawn (PGM 1, 42). Sabaoth is also invoked together with God of Abraham, God of Isaac and Jesus Christ against an impure demon. ( PGM IV, l). His name was also used against fever, in the love-charm over a cup, in the business favour spells, for dream divination and to help with memory. His name is written in the figura magica of the Headless One (PGM III, l).

Sabaoth has had a widespread use in magic. It is mentioned in Ars Notoria, Sword of Moses and in many other grimoires. According to Book of Soyga, Sabaoth appears as “King of Armies.” Sabaoth is also the 36th God’s name according to Slavic Miscellany for Travelers. It could be used in conjuration of Menadel. The Grimoire of Armadel presents the Character of Michael, in which Sabaoth is written.

Sabaoth is a God’s name given to Adam. In The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses belongs to the third set of Shemhamphorash and should be used when you call the spirits of departed. As name given to Adam, it also appears in Semiphoras und Schemhamphoras Salomonis regis, where it also belongs to the third set of Semiphoras, but there it is to be used to collect winds, devils and spirits. A Book of the Offices of Spirits also instructs that Sabaoth should be used in conjurations of any spirit of the earth or water or fire, and to make any spirit of any dead man appear and give answer.

Sabaoth is also a God’s name in the Shemhophorosh prayer from The Sworn Book of Honorius. In another prayer from this book, it is mentioned as one of the 25 most holy names of God. This book uses this name of God in invocation of the angels. It instructs that Sabaoth should be written in the sword.

Variations of this name include: Adonay Sabaoth, Adonay Zebeoth, Elohim Sabbat, HVH Sabaoth, Jehova Sabaoth, Jehuvehu Zebaoth, Sabaoth Tetragrammaton, Lord God of Sabboth, Sabahot, Sabaioth, Sabal, Sabao, Sabator, Sabbac, Sabbadaios, Sadaot, Sanctos Sabaoth, Sebaoth, Zabaoth, Zebaona and Zebaoth.

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